Middle East Book Notes

These guided questions are for you to understand much of the information in the book that may not be covered in class, but may appear on the test. I will not collect these but you need to know this.
The Land and the People (pages 551-556)
  1. “What is the Middle East”?
  2. It is commonly known as the Middle East, but what is the geographical name of the region?
  3. What 2 things make North Africa part of the Middle East?
  1. What continents is the Middle East at the crossroads of?
  2. What ideas originated in the Middle East?
  3. The Middle East sits at vital sea routes.   What sea routes does Egypt control?
  4. What sea routes does Turkey control?
  5. What are the 5 subregions of the Middle East?
  6. What countries are the Northern Tier?
  7. The Arabian Peninsula is ________ the size of the US but has a _________ population
  8. There is a lack of _______________ in the subregion
  9. An _______________ is a fertile desert area that has enough water to support plant and animal life
  10. There are huge amounts of _______________ in this subregion
  11. Where is the Fertile Crescent?
  12. Conquerors historically have taken over here because of its fertile lands and rich cities.  The Ancient Kingdom of Israel and the first civilizations of _______________ were here.
16.  The _______________ Valley had geographic advantages that Mesopotamia did not have
17.  “Maghreb” means “western isle” or “west” in _______________
18.  What countries are in the Maghreb subregion?
19.  Less than _______________ of the land receives enough water to make farming possible
20.  Modern technology improved their _______________ methods to make farming possible
21.  What religions call the Maghreb home?
22.  Discussion question (ask to the class)- What is an Arab? (define Arab)
Early Civilizations (pages 556-563)
  1. When was the Epic of Gilgamesh composed?
  2. What natural disaster happened a lot in the Tigris-Euphrates Valley?
  3. What was the first civilization?
  4. They used _______________ to get water to crops
  5. They also built dikes and _______________
  6. By 3500 BC there were _______________ in Mesopotamia
  7. Why were priests important to the Sumerians?
  8. The chief building in the city-state was called the _______________, which was a huge, many-tiered temple where the priests controlled the daily lives of the people
  9. _______________ could read and write so they kept records
  10. The Sumerians developed a system of _______________ like many ancient civilizations
  11. The Romans called this writing _______________
  12. The Sumerians were the first people known to use the _______________ and they invented the _______________ for boats
  13. What else did they invent?
  1. _______________ wander from place to place
  2. King _______________’s Code included 282 laws
  3. What was the basic principle of Hammurabi’s Code?
  4. Discussion question- What is our opinion of Hammurabi’s Code?
  5. The Hittites are best known for their mastery of _______________
  6. Our alphabet today is based on the _______________ alphabet
  7. The _______________ Empire stretched from Asia Minor to the Indus Valley (modern-day India).
  8. _______________ divided his empire into 20 provinces
  9. The Persians tolerated _______________ among the peoples they conquered allowing them to keep their own languages, customs, religions, etc. but they just wanted to conquer them, tax them and become more powerful
  10. The governor or _______________ was responsible for taxation and running the colony
  11. The ancient Persian religion was called ______________________________
  12. _______________ the Great is responsible for conquering much of the Middle East and leading to cultural diffusion
  13. The _______________ Empire conquered large parts of the Middle East after.  The Bible refers to the Roman Empire having the authority to put Jesus to death
Judaism and Christianity (pages 563-566)
  1. Discussion question- What does it mean to be “Jewish”?
  1. Discussion question- What is the difference between Judaism and Christianity?
  1. _______________ were enslaved in Egypt
  2. _______________ led them out of captivity
  3. Hebrews believed that they were _______________’s chosen people
  4. Hebrews were eventually called _______________ because their land was eventually called Judea
  5. In about 1025 BC Hebrews established the kingdom of _______________
  6. Canaan or Israel was in between _______________ and _______________
  7. _______________ was known for being a skilled general
  8. _______________ was known for his wisdom
  9. _______________ became the magnificent capital of Israel
  10. In 70 AD, the Jews revolted against Roman rule, which is called the _______________ or “scattering” because Jews ended up dispersed from Jerusalem and Israel and scattered all over the world, but especially Europe
  11. The Hebrews believed in one god, which is called ______________________________
  12. What is their sacred book called?
  13. What are the most important laws in the Torah?
  14. Discussion question- How many can we name?
  1. Israel became known as _______________ after the Romans sold the land to Arabs when they dispersed the Jews in 66-70 AD
  2. _______________ grew out of Judaism
  3. Christians believed that Jesus was the Christ or _______________, which means savior
  4. Romans were threatened by Jesus’ popularity so he was put to death by _______________
  5. Jesus stressed love and compassion for the rich or poor, _______________or Gentile, which means non-Jew
  6. Jesus used _______________ or short stories to teach lessons
  7. Christians were persecuted by the _______________ Empire before Christianity became legal in 313 and then the state religion by 395!
  8. The bishop of Rome (or the Vatican City) took the name _______________
  9. When Rome split, the _______________ emperor refused to recognize the pope as the leader of the church and this created the divide between the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church
The World of Islam (pages 569-575)
  1. Discussion Question- Define “Muslim”
  1. Who founded the Muslim religion?
  2. What angel told Muhammad (Mohammed) all of these teachings?
  3. What is the holy book of Islam called?
  4. What percentage of the world’s population are Muslim today?
  5. The leading towns on the Arabian Peninsula were Yathrib and _______________
  6. People came to worship in Mecca at the _______________
  7. _______________ was born in Mecca in 570 AD
  8. In 622, Muhammad and his followers were forced out of Mecca and fled to _______________ which is called the “hejira”
  9. In _______________ he returned to Mecca
  10. By Muhhamad’s death in 632, most of the _______________ Peninsula was under Islam’s control, influence or belief
  11. What do Muslims call God?
  12. What are the five pillars of Islam?
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